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They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.
Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.
The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.
The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;  there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.
Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.
The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.
A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.
Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.
For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.
Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects;  the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.
The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.
In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.
An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.
In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.
There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep. There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways.
The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents. While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required.
For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.
Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque.
These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.
There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins ,  reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".
Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice. Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.
If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.
The texts are silent as to the time when the immortal part began its beatified existence; but it is probable that the Osiris of a man only attained to the full enjoyment of spiritual happiness after the funeral ceremonies had been duly per formed and the ritual recited.
Comparatively few particulars are known of the manner of life of the soul in heaven, and though a number of interesting facts may be gleaned from the texts of all periods, it is very difficult to harmonize them.
This result is due partly to the different views held by different schools of thought in ancient Egypt, and partly to the fact that on some points the Egyptians them selves seem to have had no decided opinions.
We depend upon the pyramid texts for our knowledge of their earliest conceptions of a future life.
The life of the Osiris of a man in heaven is at once material and spiritual and it seems as if the Egyptians never succeeded in breaking away from their very ancient habit of confusing the things of the body with the things of the soul.
They believed in an incorporeal and immortal part of man, the constituent elements of which flew to heaven after death and embalmment; yet the theologians of the VIth dynasty had decided that there was some part of the deceased which could only mount to heaven by means of a ladder.
In the pyramid of Teta it is said, "When Teta hath purified himself on the borders of this earth where Ra hath purified himself, he prayeth and setteth up the ladder, and those who dwell in the great place press Teta forward with their hands.
The Osiris consisted of all the spiritual parts of a man gathered together in a form which resembled him exactly.
Whatever honour was paid to the mummified body was received by its Osiris, the offerings made to it were accepted by its Osiris, and the amulets laid upon it were made use of by its Osiris for its own protection.
The sahu , the ka , the ba , the khu , the khaibit , the sekhem , and the ren were in primeval times separate and independent parts of man's immortal nature; but in the pyramid texts they are welded together, and the dead king Pepi is addressed as "Osiris Pepi.
In the pyramid of Unas it is said, "Ra setteth upright the ladder for Osiris, and Horus raiseth up the ladder for his father Osiris, when Osiris goeth to [find] his soul; one standeth on the one side, and the other standeth on the other, and Unas is betwixt them.
Unas standeth up and is Horus, he sitteth down and is Set. This Pepi is thy son, this Pepi is Horus, thou hast given birth unto this Pepi even as thou hast given birth unto the god who is the lord of the Ladder.
Thou hast given him the Ladder of God, and thou hast given him the Ladder of Set, whereon this Pepi hath gone forth into heaven.
Every khu and every god stretcheth out his hand unto this Pepi when he cometh forth into heaven by the Ladder of God. Pepi hath gathered together his bones, he hath collected his flesh, and Pepi hath gone straightway into heaven by means of the two fingers of the god who is the Lord of the Ladder.
When the Osiris of a man has entered into heaven as a living soul, he is regarded as one of those who "have eaten the eye of Horus he walks among.
Moreover, his body as a whole is identified with the God of Heaven. For example it is said concerning Unas: Further, this identification of the deceased with the God of Heaven places him in the position of supreme ruler.
For example, we have the prayer that Unas "may rule the nine gods and complete the company of the nine gods," and Pepi I. Again, the deceased is changed into Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis.
It is said of Pepi I. When Pepi standeth upon the north of heaven with Ra, he becometh lord of the universe like unto the king of the gods.
The place of the deceased in heaven is by the side of God in the most holy place, and he becomes God and an angel of God; he himself is triumphant,.
A somewhat different view of the signification of maakheru is given by Virey Tombeau de Rekhmara, Paris, , p. The offerings which were painted on the walls of the tomb were actually enjoyed by the deceased in his new state of being.
The Egyptians called them " per kheru ," that is to say, " the things which the word or the demand made to appear ," or " per hru kheru ," that is to say, " the things which presented themselves at the word " or " at the demand " of the deceased.
The deceased was then called " maa kheru ," that is to say, " he who realizes his word ," or " he who realizes while he speaks ," or " whose voice or demand realizes ," or " whose voice or demand makes true, or makes to be really and actually " that which only appears in painting on the walls of the tomb.
It is possible that maa-kheru may mean simply "blessed. He goes round about heaven even as they do, and he partakes of their food of figs and wine.
Those who would be hostile to the deceased become thereby foes of the god Tmu, and all injuries inflicted on him are inflicted on that god; he dwells without fear under the protection of the gods, from whose loins he has come forth.
His calamities are brought to an end, for Unas hath been purified with the Eye of Horus; the calamities of Unas have been done away by Isis and Nephthys.
Unas is in heaven, Unas is in heaven, in the form of air, in the form of air; he perisheth not, neither doth anything which is in him perish.
Those who row Ra up into the heavens row him also, and those who row Ra beneath the horizon row him also.
Thy soul is with thee in thy body, thy form of strength is behind thee, thy crown is upon thy head, thy head-dress is upon thy shoulders, thy face is before thee, and those who sing songs of joy are upon both sides of thee; those who follow in the train of God are behind thee, and the divine forms who make God to come are upon each side of thee.
God cometh, and Pepi hath come upon the throne of Osiris. The shining one who dwelleth in Netat, the divine form that dwelleth in Teni, hath come.
Isis speaketh unto thee, Nephthys holdeth converse with thee, and the shining ones come unto thee bowing down even to the ground in adoration at thy feet, by reason of the writing which thou hast, O Pepi, in the region of Saa.
Thou comest forth to thy mother Nut, and she strengtheneth thy arm, and she maketh a way for thee through the sky to the place where Ra abideth. Thou hast opened the gates of the sky, thou hast opened the doors of the celestial deep; thou hast found Ra and he watcheth over thee, he hath taken thee by thy hand, he hath led thee into the two regions of heaven, and he hath placed thee on the throne of Osiris.
Then hail, O Pepi, for the Eye of Horus came to hold converse with thee; thy soul which was among the gods came unto thee; thy form of power which was dwelling among the shining ones came unto thee.
As a son fighteth for his father, and as Horus avenged Osiris, even so doth Horus defend Pepi against his enemies.
Thou doest that which he doeth among the immortal shining ones; thy soul sitteth upon its throne being provided with thy form, and it doeth that which thou doest in the presence of Him that liveth among the living, by the command of Ra, the great god.
It reapeth the wheat, it cutteth the barley, and it giveth it unto thee. Now, therefore, O Pepi, he that hath given unto thee life and all power and eternity and the power of speech and thy body is Ra.
Thou hast endued thyself with the forms of God, and thou hast become magnified thereby before the gods who dwell in the Lake.
Hail, Pepi, thy soul standeth among the gods and among the shining ones, and the fear of thee striketh into their hearts. Hail, Pepi, thou placest thyself upon the throne of Him that dwelleth among the living, and it is the writing which thou hast [that striketh terror] into their hearts.
Thy name shall live upon earth, thy name shall flourish upon earth, thou shalt neither perish nor be destroyed for ever and for ever.
Side by side, however, with the passages which speak of the material and spiritual enjoyments of the deceased, we have others which seem to imply that the Egyptians believed in a corporeal existence, or at least in the capacity for corporeal enjoyment, in the future state.
This belief may have rested upon the view that the life in the next world was but a continuation of the life upon earth, which it resembled closely, or it may have been due to the survival of semi-savage gross ideas incorporated into the religious texts of the Egyptians.
However this may be, it is quite certain that in the Vth dynasty the deceased king Unas eats with his mouth, and exercises other natural functions of the body, and gratifies his passions.
Here all creation is represented as being in terror when they see the deceased king rise up as a soul in the form of a god who devours "his fathers and mothers"; he feeds upon men and also upon gods.
He hunts the gods in the fields and snares them; and when they are tied up for slaughter he cuts their throats and disembowels them. He roasts and eats the best of them, but the old gods and goddesses are used for fuel.
By eating them he imbibes both their magical powers, and their khu's. He becomes the "great Form, the form among forms, and the god of all the great gods who "exist in visible forms," and he is at the head of all the sahu , or spiritual bodies in heaven.
He carries off the hearts of the gods, and devours the wisdom of every god; therefore the duration of his life is everlasting and he lives to all eternity, for the souls of the gods and their khu's are in him.
The whole passage reads: Unas is the lord of wisdom, and his mother knoweth not his name. The gifts of Unas are in heaven, and he hath become mighty in the horizon like unto Tmu, the father that gave him birth, and after Tmu gave him birth Unas became stronger than his father.
See Maspero, Recueil , t. The powers of Unas protect him; Unas is a bull in heaven, he directeth his steps where he will, he liveth upon the form which each god taketh upon himself, and be eateth the flesh of those who come to fill their bellies with the magical charms ill the Lake of Fire.
Unas is equipped with power against the shining spirits thereof, and he riseth up in the form of the mighty one, the lord of those who dwell in power?
Unas hath taken his seat with his side turned towards Seb. Unas is the lord of offerings, the untier of the knot, and he himself maketh abundant the offerings of meat and drink.
He that cutteth off hairy scalps and dwelleth in the fields hath netted the gods in a snare; he that arrangeth his head hath considered them [good] for Unas and hath driven them unto him; and the cord-master hath bound them for slaughter.
Khonsu the slayer of [his] lords hath cut their throats and drawn out their inward parts, for it was he whom Unas sent to drive them in; and Shesem hath cut them in pieces and boiled their members in his blazing caldrons.
The mighty ones in heaven shoot out fire under the caldrons which are heaped up with the haunches of the firstborn; and he that maketh those who live in heaven to revolve round Unas hath shot into the caldrons the haunches of their women; he hath gone round about the two heavens in their entirety, and he hath gone round about the two banks of the celestial Nile.
Unas is the great Form, the Form of forms, and Unas is the chief of the gods in visible forms. Whatever he hath found upon his path he hath eaten forthwith, and the magical might of Unas is before that of all the sahu who dwell in the horizon.
Unas is the firstborn of the first born. Unas hath gone round thousands and he hath offered oblations unto hundreds; he hath manifested his might as the Great Form through Sah Orion [who is greater] than the gods.
Unas repeateth his rising in heaven and he is the crown of the lord of the horizon. He hath reckoned up the bandlets and the arm-rings, he hath taken possession of the hearts of the gods Unas hath eaten the red crown, and he hath swallowed the white crown; the food of Unas is the inward parts, and his meat is those who live upon magical charms in their hearts.
Behold, Unas eateth of that which the red crown sendeth forth, he increaseth, and the magical charms of the gods are in his belly; that which belongeth to him is not turned back from him.
Unas hath eaten the whole of the knowledge of every god, and the period of his life is eternity, and the duration of his existence is everlastingness, in whatsoever he wisheth to take; whatsoever form he hateth he shall not labour in in the horizon for ever and ever and ever.
The soul of the gods is in Unas, their spirits are with Unas, and the offerings made unto him are more than those made unto the gods.
The fire of Unas is in their bones, for their soul is with Unas, and their shades are with those who belong unto them. The notion that, by eating the flesh, or particularly by drinking the blood, of another living being, a man absorbs his nature or life into his own, is one which appears among primitive peoples in many forms.
The Australian blacks kill a man, cut out his caul-fat, and rub themselves with it, "the belief being that all the qualifications, both physical and mental of the previous owner of the fat, were communicated to him who used it"; see Fraser, Golden Bough , vol.
To the great and supreme power which made the earth, the heavens, the sea, the sky, men and women, animals, birds, and creeping things, all that is and all that shall be, the Egyptians gave the name neter.
This word survives in the Coptic , but both in the ancient language and in its younger relative the exact meaning of the word is lost.
By a quotation from the stele of Canopus he shows that in Ptolemaic times it meant "holy" or "sacred" when applied to the animals of the gods.
Maspero, however, thinks that the Coptic nomti has nothing in common with meter, the Egyptian word for God, and that the passages quoted by Mr.
Renouf in support of his theory can be otherwise explained. The fact that the Coptic translators of the Bible used the word nouti to express the name of the Supreme Being shows that no other word conveyed to their minds their conception of Him, and supports M.
Maspero's views on this point. But side by side with neter , whatever it may mean, we have mentioned in texts of all ages a number of beings called neteru which Egyptologists universally translate by the word "gods.
The difference between the conceptions of neter the one supreme God and the neteru is best shown by an appeal to Egyptian texts.
Die thätige Kraft, welche in periodischer Wiederkehr die Dinge erzeugt und erschafft, ihnen neues Leben verleiht und die Jugendfrische zurückgiebt.
All these extracts are from texts of the Vth and VIth dynasties. It may be urged that we might as well translate neter by "a god" or "the god," but other evidence of the conception of neter at that early date is afforded by the following passages from the Prisse papyrus, which, although belonging at the earliest to he XIth dynasty, contains copies of the Precepts of Kaqemna, written in the reign of Seneferu, a king of the IVth dynasty, and the Precepts of Ptah-hetep, written during the reign of Assa, a king of the Vth dynasty.
Prisse d'Avennes, Paris, , fol. See Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte , p. If, having been of no account, thou hast become great, and if, having been poor, thou hast become rich, when thou art governor of the city be not hard-hearted on account of thy advancement, because.
This work contains the hieratic text divided into sections for analysis, and accompanied by a hieroglyphic transcript, commentary, etc.
This work contains a more accurate hieroglyphic transcript of the hieratic text, full translation, etc. The following are examples of the use of neter: The passages from the pyramid of Pepi show at once the difference between neter as God, and the "gods" neteru ; the other passages, which might be multiplied almost indefinitely, prove that the Being spoken of is God.
The neteru or "gods" whom Unas hunted, and snared, and killed, and roasted, and ate, are beings who could die; to them were attributed bodies, souls, ka's , spiritual bodies, etc.
Of these mortal gods some curious legends have come down to us; from which the following may be selected as illustrating their inferior position.
Now Isis was a woman who possessed words of power; her heart was wearied with the millions of men, and she chose the millions of the gods, but she esteemed more highly the millions of the khu's.
And she meditated in her heart, saying, "Cannot I by means of the sacred name of God make myself mistress of the earth and become a goddess like unto.
The holy one had grown old, he dribbled at the mouth, his spittle fell upon the earth, and his slobbering dropped upon the ground.
And Isis kneaded it with earth in her hand, and formed thereof a sacred serpent in the form of a spear; she set it not upright before her face, but let it lie upon the ground in the path whereby the great god went forth, according to his heart's desire, into his double kingdom.
Now the holy god arose, and the gods who followed him as though he were Pharaoh went with him; and he came forth according to his daily wont; and the sacred serpent bit him.
The flame of life departed from him, and he who dwelt among the cedars? The holy god opened his mouth, and the cry of his majesty reached unto heaven.
His company of gods said, "What hath happened? When the great god had stablished his heart, he cried unto those who were in his train, saying, "Come unto me, O ye who have come into being from my body, ye gods who have come forth from me, make ye known unto Khepera that a dire calamity hath fallen upon me.
My heart perceiveth it, but my eyes see it not; my hand hath not caused it, nor do I know who hath done this unto me. Never have I felt such pain, neither can sickness cause more woe than this.
I am a prince, the son of a prince, a sacred essence which hath preceded from God. I am a great one, the son of a great one, and my father planned my name; I have multitudes of names and multitudes of forms, and my existence is in every god.
I have been proclaimed by the heralds Tmu and Horus, and my father and my mother uttered my name; but it hath been hidden within me by him that begat me, who would not that the words of power of any seer should have dominion over me.
I came forth to look upon that which I had made, I was passing through the world which I had created, when lo! My heart is on fire, my flesh quaketh, and trembling hath seized all my limbs.
Let there be brought unto me the children of the gods with healing words and with lips that know, and with power which reacheth unto heaven.
And she spake, saying, "What hath come to pass, O holy father? A serpent hath bitten thee, and a thing which thou hast created hath lifted up his head against thee.
Verily it shall be cast forth by my healing words of power, and I will drive it away from before the sight of thy sunbeams. The holy god opened his mouth and said, "I was passing along my path, and I was going through the two regions of my lands according to my heart's desire, to see that which I had created, when lo!
I was bitten by a serpent which I saw not. I am colder than water, I am hotter than fire. All my flesh sweateth, I quake, my eye hath no strength, I cannot see the sky, and the sweat rusheth to my face even as in the time of summer.
I have made the heavens, I have stretched out the two horizons like a curtain, and I have placed the soul of the gods within them. I am he who, if he openeth his eyes, doth make the light, and, if he closeth them, darkness cometh into being.
At his command the Nile riseth, and the gods know not his name. I have made the hours, I have created the days, I bring forward the festivals of the year, I create the Nile-flood.
I make the fire of life, and I provide food in the houses. Then said Isis unto Ra, "What thou hast said is not thy name. O tell it unto me, and the poison shall depart; for he shall live whose name shall be revealed.
And when the time arrived for the heart of Ra to come forth, Isis spake unto her son Horus, saying, "The god hath bound himself by an oath to deliver up his two eyes" i.
Thus was the name of the great god taken from him, and Isis, the lady of enchantments, said, "Depart, poison, go forth from Ra.
O eye of Horus, go forth from the god, and shine outside his mouth. It is I who work, it is I who make to fall down upon the earth the vanquished poison; for the name of the great god hath been taken away from him.
Thus we see that even to the great god Ra were attributed all the weakness and frailty of mortal man; and that "gods" and "goddesses" were classed with beasts and reptiles, which could die and perish.
As a result, it seems that the word "God" should be reserved to express the name of the Creator of the Universe, and that neteru , usually rendered "gods," should be translated by some other word, but what that word should be it is almost impossible to say.
From the attributes of God set forth in Egyptian texts of all periods, Dr. The hieratic text of this story was published by Pleyte and Rossi, Le Papyrus de Turin , , pll.
Pierret adopts the view that the texts show us that the Egyptians believed in One infinite and eternal God who was without a second, and he repeats Champollion's dictum.
Brugsch, who has collected a number of striking passages from the texts. From these passages we may select the following: God is one and alone, and none other existeth with Him--God is the One, the One who hath made all things--God is a spirit, a hidden spirit, the spirit of spirits, the great spirit of the Egyptians, the divine spirit--God is from the beginning, and He hath been from the beginning, He hath existed from old and was when nothing else had being.
He existed when nothing else existed, and what existeth He created after He had come into being, He is the Father of beginnings--God is the eternal One, He is eternal and infinite and endureth for ever and aye--God is hidden and no man knoweth His form.
No man hath been able to seek out His likeness; He is hidden to gods and men, and He is a mystery unto His creatures. No man knoweth how to know Him--His name remaineth hidden; His name is a mystery unto His children.
His names are innumerable, they are manifold and none knoweth their number--God is truth and He liveth by truth and He feedeth thereon.
He is the king of truth, and He hath stablished the earth thereupon--God is life and through Him. He giveth life to man, He breatheth the breath of life into his nostrils--God is father and mother, the father of fathers, and the mother of mothers.
He begetteth, but was never begotten; He produceth, but was never produced; He begat himself and produced himself.
He createth, but was never created; He is the maker of his own form, and the fashioner of His own body--God Himself is existence, He endureth without increase or diminution, He multiplieth Himself millions of times, and He is manifold in forms and in members--God hath made the universe, and He hath created all that therein is; He is the Creator of what is in this world, and of what was, of what is, and of what shall be.
He is the Creator of the heavens, and of the earth, and of the deep, and of the water, and of the mountains.
God hath stretched out the heavens and founded the earth-What His heart conceived straightway came to pass, and when He hath spoken, it cometh to pass and endureth for ever--God is the father of the gods; He fashioned men and formed the gods--God is merciful unto those who reverence Him, and He heareth him that calleth upon Him.
God knoweth him that acknowledgeth Him, He rewardeth him that serveth Him, and He protecteth him that followeth Him. Because, however, polytheism existed side by side with monotheism in Egypt, M.
Renouf thinks that the "Egyptian nutar never became a proper name. The opinion of Tiele is that the religion of Egypt was from the beginning polytheistic, but that it developed in two opposite directions: From a number of passages drawn from texts of all periods it is clear that the form in which God made himself manifest to man upon earth was the sun, which the Egyptians called Ra and that all other gods and goddesses were forms of him.
The principal authorities for epithets applied to God and to His visible emblem the sun are the hymns and litanies which are found inscribed upon.
Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie , pp. The whole chapter on the ancient Egyptian conception of God should be read with M. Hypothezen omtrent de wording van den Egyptischen Godsdienst in Geschiedenis van den Godsdienst in de Oudheid , Amsterdam, , p.
The religious ideas which we find in these writings in the XVIIIth dynasty are, no doubt, the outcome of the religion of earlier times, for all the evidence now available shows that the Egyptians of the later periods invented comparatively little in the way of religious literature.
Where, how, and in what way they succeeded in preserving their most ancient texts, are matters about which little, unfortunately, is known. In course of time we find that the attributes of a certain god in one period are applied to other gods in another; a new god is formed by the fusion of two or more gods; local gods, through the favourable help of political circumstances, or the fortune of war, become almost national gods; and the gods who are the companions of Osiris are endowed by the pious with all the attributes of the great cosmic gods--Ra, Ptah, Khnemu, Khepera, and the like.
Still more remarkable, however, is the progress of the god Amen in Egyptian theology. In the early empire, i. Mariette, Paris, , pll.
Having by virtue of being the god of the conquerors obtained the position of head of the company of Egyptian gods, he received the attributes of the most ancient gods, and little by little he absorbed the epithets of them all.
Thus Amen became Amen-Ra, and the glory of the old gods of Annu, or Heliopolis, was centred in him who was originally an obscure local god.
The worship of Amen in Egypt was furthered by the priests of the great college of Amen, which seems to have been established early in the XVIIIth dynasty by the kings who were his devout worshippers.
The extract from a papyrus written for the princess Nesi-Khonsu, a member of the priesthood of Amen, is an example of the exalted language in which his votaries addressed him.
The sacred Form, beloved, terrible and mighty in his two risings? He shone upon the earth from primeval time [in the form of] the Disk, the prince of light and radiance.
He giveth light and radiance. He giveth light unto all peoples. He saileth over heaven and never resteth, and on the morrow his vigour is stablished as before; having become old [to-day], he becometh young again to-morrow.
He mastereth the bounds of eternity, he goeth roundabout heaven, and entereth into the Tuat to illumine the two lands which he hath created.
When the divine or mighty God, moulded himself, the heavens and the earth were made by his. The literature relating to the fragment of the Sallier papyrus recording this fact is given by Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte , p.
He is the primeval water which floweth forth in its season to make to live all that cometh forth upon his potter's wheel. He is the lord of time and he traverseth eternity; he is the aged one who reneweth his youth he hath multitudes of eyes and myriads of ears; his rays are the guides of millions of men he is the lord of life and giveth unto those who love him the whole earth, and they are under the protection of his face.
When he goeth forth he worketh unopposed, and no man can make of none effect that which he hath done. His name is gracious, and the love of him is sweet; and at the dawn all people make supplication unto him through his mighty power and terrible strength, and every god lieth in fear of him.
He is the young bull that destroyeth the wicked, and his strong arm fighteth against his foes. Through him did the earth come into being in the beginning.
He is the Soul which shineth through his divine eyes, he is the Being endowed with power and the maker of all that hath come into being, and he ordered the world, and he cannot be known.
He is the King who maketh kings to reign, and he directeth the world in his course; gods and goddesses bow down in adoration before his Soul by reason of the awful terror which belongeth unto him.
He hath gone before and hath stablished all that cometh after him, and he made the universe in the beginning by his secret counsels.
He is the Being who cannot be known, and he is more hidden than all the gods. He maketh the Disk to be his vicar, and he himself cannot be known, and he hideth himself from that which cometh forth from him.
He is a bright flame of fire, mighty in splendours, he can be seen only in the form in which he showeth himself, and he can be gazed upon only when he manifesteth himself, and that which is in him cannot be understood.
At break of day all peoples make supplication unto him, and when he riseth with hues of orange and saffron among the company of the gods he becometh the greatly desired one of every god.
The god Nu appeareth with the breath of the north wind in this hidden god who maketh for untold millions of men the decrees which abide for ever; his decrees.
He giveth long life and multiplieth the years of those who are favoured by him, he is the gracious protector of him whom he setteth in his heart, and he is the fashioner of eternity and everlastingness.
He is the king of the North and of the South, Amen-Ra, king of the gods, the lord of heaven, and of earth and of the waters and of the mountains, with whose coming into being the earth began its existence, the mighty one, more princely than all the gods of the first company thereof.
With reference to the origin of the gods of the Egyptians much useful information may be derived from the pyramid texts. From them it would seem that, in the earliest times, the Egyptians had tried to think out and explain to themselves the origin of their gods and of their groupings.
Maspero they reduced everything to one kind of primeval matter which they believed contained everything in embryo; this matter was water, Nu, which they deified, and everything which arose therefrom was a god.
The priests of Annu at a very early period grouped together the nine greatest gods of Egypt, forming what is called the paut neteru or "company of the gods," or as it is written in the pyramid texts, paut aat , "the great company of gods"; the texts also show that there was a second group of nine gods called paut net'eset or "lesser company of the gods"; and a third group of nine gods is also known.
When all three pauts of gods are addressed they appear as. We should naturally expect Ra to stand at the head of the great paut of the gods; but it must be remembered that the chief local god of Annu was Tmu, and, as the priests of that city revised and edited the pyramid texts known to us, they naturally substituted their own form of the god Ra, or at best united him with Ra, and called him Tmu-Ra.
In the primeval matter, or water, lived the god Tmu, and when he rose for the first time, in the form of the sun, he created the world.
Here at once we have Tmu assimilated with Nu. A curious passage in the pyramid of Pepi I. The first act of Tmu was to create from his own body the god Shu and the goddess Tefnut; and afterwards Seb the earth and Nut the sky came into being.
These were followed by Osiris and Isis, Set and Nephthys. Brugsch's version of the origin of the gods as put forth in his last work on the subject is somewhat different.
According to him there was in the beginning neither heaven nor earth, and nothing existed except a boundless primeval mass of water which was shrouded in darkness and which contained within itself the germs or beginnings, male and female, of everything which was to be in the future world.
The divine primeval spirit which formed an essential part of the primeval matter felt within itself the desire to begin the work of creation, and its word woke to life the world, the form and shape of which it had already depicted to itself.
The first act of creation began with the formation of an egg out of the primeval water, from which broke forth Ra, the immediate cause of all life upon earth.
The almighty power of the divine spirit embodied itself in its most brilliant form in the rising sun. When the inert mass of primeval matter felt the desire of the primeval spirit to begin the work of creation, it began to move, and the creatures which were to constitute the future world were formed.
Under the influence of Thoth, or that form of the divine intelligence which created the world by a word, eight elements, four male and four female, arose out of the primeval Nu , which possessed the properties of the male and female.
These eight elements were called Nu and Nut, Heh and Hehet, Kek and Keket, and Enen and Enenet, or Khemennu, the "Eight," and they were considered as primeval fathers and mothers.
This spiritual body was then able to interact with the many entities extant in the afterlife. A well-known example was found in a tomb from the Middle Kingdom in which a man leaves a letter to his late wife who, it can be supposed, is haunting him:.
What wicked thing have I done to thee that I should have come to this evil pass? What have I done to thee? But what thou hast done to me is to have laid hands on me although I had nothing wicked to thee.
From the time I lived with thee as thy husband down to today, what have I done to thee that I need hide?
When thou didst sicken of the illness which thou hadst, I caused a master-physician to be fetched…I spent eight months without eating and drinking like a man.
I wept exceedingly together with my household in front of my street-quarter. I gave linen clothes to wrap thee and left no benefit undone that had to be performed for thee.
And now, behold, I have spent three years alone without entering into a house, though it is not right that one like me should have to do it.
This have I done for thy sake. But, behold, thou dost not know good from bad. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the jb , or heart.
The heart  was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the heart of the child's mother, taken at conception. Unlike in English, when ancient Egyptians referenced the jb they generally meant the physical heart as opposed to a metaphorical heart.
However, ancient Egyptians usually made no distinction between the mind and the heart with regard to emotion or thought.
The two were synonymous. In the Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was essential to surviving death in the nether world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor.
According to the Text of the Book of Breathings ,. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and the deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony.
If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat , it was immediately consumed by the monster Ammit , and the soul became eternally restless.
The Egyptians believed that Khnum created the bodies of children on a potter's wheel and inserted them into their mothers' bodies. This resembles the concept of spirit in other religions.
Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.
The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis , and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black.
Little is known about the Egyptian interpretation of this portion of the soul. As a part of the soul, a person's rn r n 'name' was given to them at birth and the Egyptians believed that it would live for as long as that name was spoken, which explains why efforts were made to protect it and the practice of placing it in numerous writings.
It is a person's identity, their experiences, and their entire life's worth of memories. For example, part of the Book of Breathings , a derivative of the Book of the Dead , was a means to ensure the survival of the name.
The darkness personified was Apep, Nak, etc. The House of the Prince keepeth festival, and the sound of those who rejoice is in the 12 mighty dwelling.
The gods are glad [when] they see Ra in his rising; his beams flood the world with light. May I see Horus in charge of the rudder, with Thoth. May he grant unto the ka of Osiris Ani to behold the disk of the Sun and to see the Moon-god without ceasing, every day; and may my soul 18 come forth and walk hither and thither and whithersoever it pleaseth.
May my name be proclaimed when it is found upon the board of the table of 22 offerings; may offerings be made unto me in my 24 presence, even as they are made unto the followers of Horus; may there be prepared for me a seat in the boat of the Sun on the day of the going forth of the 26 god; and may I be received into the presence of Osiris in the land 28 of triumph!
The following versions of this chapter are taken from: Naville, Todtenbuch , Bd. British Museum Papyrus No. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, 2 who saith: Thou risest, thou risest, thou Ra shinest, 3 thou shinest, at dawn of day.
Thou art crowned like unto the king of the gods, and the goddess Shuti doeth homage unto thee. Thou goest forth over the upper air and thy heart is filled with gladness.
Ra rejoiceth, Ra rejoiceth. Thy sacred boat advanceth in peace. Thy foe hath been cast down and his 7 head hath been cut off; the heart of the Lady of life rejoiceth in that the enemy of her lord hath been overthrown.
The mariners of Ra have content of heart and Annu rejoiceth. Grant that I may be like unto one of those who are thy favoured 10 ones [among the followers] of the great god.
May my name be proclaimed, may it be found, may it be lastingly renewed with. Thou 19 wakest up in beauty at the dawn, when the company of the gods and mortals sing songs of joy unto thee; hymns of praise are offered unto thee at eventide.
The 20 starry deities also adore thee. O thou firstborn, who dost lie without movement, 21 arise; thy mother showeth loving kindness unto thee every day.
Ra liveth and the fiend Nak is dead; thou dost endure for ever, and the 22 fiend hath fallen. The goddess Nehebka is in 23 the atet boat; the sacred boat rejoiceth.
Thy heart is glad and thy brow is wreathed with the twin serpents. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, triumphant, who saith: The beings who minister unto Osiris cherish him as King of the North and of the South, the beautiful and beloved man-child.
When 4 he riseth, mortals live. The nations rejoice in him, and the Spirits of Annu sing unto him songs of joy. The Spirits of the towns of Pe and Nekhen 5 exalt him, the apes of dawn adore him, and all beasts and cattle praise 6 him with one accord.
The goddess Seba overthroweth thine enemies, therefore rejoice 7 within thy boat; and thy mariners are content thereat.
Thou hast arrived in the atet boat, and thy heart swelleth with joy. O Lord of the gods, when thou 8 dost create them, they ascribe praises unto thee.
The azure goddess Nut doth compass thee on every side, and the god Nu floodeth thee with his rays of light. When thou goest forth over the earth I will sing praises unto thy fair 11 face.
Thou risest in the horizon of heaven, and [thy] disk is adored [when] it resteth upon the mountain to give life unto the world.
Saith Qenna the merchant, triumphant: Thou dost become young again and art the same as thou wert yesterday, O mighty youth who hast created thyself.
The land of Punt is 14 established for the perfumes which thou smellest with thy nostrils. Thou art the lord of heaven, [thou art] the lord of earth, [thou art] the creator of those who dwell in the heights 6 and of those who dwell in the depths.
Thou didst create the earth, 8 thou didst fashion man, thou didst make the watery abyss of the sky, thou didst form Hapi [the Nile], and thou art the maker of streams and of the 9 great deep, and thou givest life to all that is therein.
Thou hast knit 10 together the mountains, thou has made mankind and the beasts of the field, thou hast created the heavens and the earth.
Worshipped be thou whom the goddess Maat embraceth at morn and at eve. Thou dost travel across the 11 sky with heart swelling with joy; the Lake of Testes is at peace.
The fiend Nak hath fallen and his two arms are cut off. The sektet boat receiveth fair winds, and the heart of him that is in his shrine rejoiceth.
Thou 12 art crowned with a heavenly form, the Only one, provided [with all things]. Ra cometh forth from Nu in triumph. O thou mighty youth, thou everlasting son, self-begotten, who didst give thyself birth, 13 O thou mighty One, of myriad forms and aspects, king of the world, Prince of Annu, lord of eternity and ruler of the everlasting, the company of the gods rejoice when thou risest and when thou sailest 14 across the sky, O thou who art exalted in the sektet boat.
Homage to thee, O Amen-Ra, thou who dost rest upon Maat, thou who passest over the heaven, and every face seeth thee.
Thou dost wax great as thy 15 Majesty doth advance, and thy rays are upon all faces. Thou art unknown and canst not be searched out.
Thou hast heard 17 with thine ears and thou hast seen with thine eyes. Millions of years have gone over the world; I cannot tell the number of them, through which thou hast passed.
Thy heart hath decreed a day of happiness in thy name [of Ra]. Thou dost pass over 18 and travellest through untold spaces of millions and hundreds of thousands of years; thou settest out in peace, and thou steerest thy way across the watery abyss to the place which thou lovest; this thou doest in one 19 little moment of time, and thou dost sink down and makest an end of the hours.
Osiris, the governor of the palace of the lord of the two lands i. Hail thou Disk, lord of beams of light, thou risest and thou makest all mankind to live.
Grant thou that I may behold thee at dawn each day. O Tmu-Heru-khuti, when thou risest in the horizon of heaven, a cry of joy cometh out of the mouth of all peoples.
Although all five were of importance, the Ba and Ka are of major significance. The Ba is the most similar to the western idea of the soul, and the Ka is closely tied to it.
As mentioned, the Ba is a notion similar to our concept of the soul; although, it has other aspects to it as well.
The Ba was seen as a collection of traits that made the individual unique such as a similarity to our concept of personality.
Despite these similarities, the Ba is not completely interchangeable with the concept of the soul.
If an Egyptian believed that there was divine intervention with an event, it would be stated that the Bau of the deity was at work. This also tied into the Pharaohs, as many of them were believed to be the Ba of a deity.
This demonstrates the importance that the Ba played within Ancient Egyptian society and culture.
The Ba was seen as an aspect of humans that lived after the body died. It was depicted as a bird with a human head often flying out of the tomb of the deceased.
At times, the Ba was shown in corporeal form eating and drinking in texts. The Ba had an important relationship with the Ka, one that was of immense importance for the Ancient Egyptians.
Where the Ba was seen as the part that lives on after death, the Ka was seen as being related to life itself. The Ka is the differing factor between the living and the dead as the Ka leaves the body upon death.
Egyptians believed that the Ka required sustenance from food and drink. This provided an explanation as to why humans needed to eat and drink to continue on living.
They also believed the Ka required sustenance after death, so offerings of food would be left out for the deceased.
Since the Ka would then be lacking a material form, it fed upon the Kau, not the actual food itself, leaving behind the physical aspect of the offering.
This played an important role in the afterlife; therefore, tying into the funeral rites and processes of Ancient Egypt.
During the preparations of the body after death, one of the most important things done was the opening of the mouth. Being able to leave the body, the Ba could reunite with the Ka to form what was known as the Akh.
This was only possible if the funeral rites were performed correctly and this process was of utmost importance to the Egyptians. The Egyptians believed that this reunification could go awry if they were not careful.
This caused them to develop literature which provided guidelines into the afterlife such as The Coffin Texts and The Book of the Dead.
The entire process of the funeral rites, offerings and the reunification, were known as Se-akh. However, the Ancient Egyptian concept of the afterlife was very different from that of other cultures.Decades had went by in which the families of the victims had gotten no information about the whereabouts Password Security | StarGames Casino. Ihr Browser blockiert den Flash Casino royale alessandra ambrosio, die bessten Spiele benötigen ihn jedoch. The wrong words are highlighted. Luca hat in seiner Heimatstadt Bozen das Grab von Daniel Harrwitz entdeckt, die dort eingravierten Lebensdaten von Harrwitz, die von den bislang publizierten abweichen, sind mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit korrekt für das Geburtsdatum bzw. Ich konnte also aufgrund der Eintragunge n i m Totenbuch b e i den Personen Matthias und Gertrud Ganninger ein joker mastercard online casino Geburtsdatum errechnen. Man fand nicht viele gut erhaltene Sarkophage des antiken Ägyptens, doch einer der schönsten ist der von Amenophis. Orders for "Ein [ The Demon of Choice. I found out the connection between the two names because the priest at this time, noticed in the death books the age of the deceased in years, months and days. In both pictures, we see the guards of death's realm. It does not match my search. Ein früherer Versuch vom deutschen Landsmann Dietmar.
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